Submitted in partial fulfillment of required for b-tech in “Electronics & communication” under Punjab state board of technical education and industrial training Chandigarh
DEPARTMENT OF “ Mechenical”
RIMT- Near floating side, Mandi Gobindgarh. Punjab (147301)
SR. NO. CHAPTER NAME PAGE
CHAPTER – 1
Many individual have proudly influenced us during our Studies (B.E) at RIMT ENGINEERING College,Mandi Gobindgarh and it is pleasure to acknowledge their guidance and support. At RIMT Polytechnic, We learned many things like the project training is mainly aimed at enabling the student to apply their theoretical knowledge to practical as “The theory is to know how and practical is to do how” and to appreciate the limitation of knowledge gained in the class room to practical situation and to appreciate the importance of discipline, punctuality, team work, sense of responsibility, money, value of time, dignity of labour.
I will like to express my gratitude towards Mrs. Talwar who took keen interest in our project, who helped me in every possible way and is source of inspiration for all the group members.
I would also like to thank Mr. Talwar (HOD), Electronics & Communication who motivated us to complete our project with enthusiasm and hard work.
1. Car Jack- 1
2. DC motor- 1
3.4*4 feet 19mm Board- 1
4. gear 5’’ diameter 2
6. Wire – 3 meter
1. diode 4007 2
2. 1000uF, 25 V 1
3. 470uF, 16 V 1
4. 7805 1
5. LED 1
6. 470 ohm 1
PROCREDURE TO MAKE PROJECT:-
IDEA OF PROJECT
In this stage student select the topic of the project of the project. It’s the main stage of project work.its the area where talented students shows their innovative ideas. Innovative students make project with a new idea then others. We selected this project because we want to do something in with our own hands. We drop idea because there was little bit practical.
STUDY RAW MATERIAL AND LAYOUT DIAGRAM
In this section we collected the study Raw Material. We searches about our project on google.com,www.yahoo.com,www.msn.com and www.ludhianaprojects.com. But we find many Layout and theory Raw Materials for our project. We were not sure about the Layout and Raw Material used in it. Because Layout diagram available on the site were provided by students. So we can really on them. Then we saw www.ludhianaprojects.com a project help provider site. Its help us lot. They helped us lot in our project. We find the proper layout Project of our project in that site.
Trail TESTING OF MAIN PROJECT- Then we collect the Raw Material of project. It was not a easy task. Because no shop in our area have all parts used in projects. Then after collection of Raw Material we test the projects working by temporary made project.- step by step. Because we want to sure about the Project. We checked it in different steps beacuuse it was a big project and was not possible to check it in a single step.
COMPONENT MOUNTING– we have also some parts of electronic circuit. So we kept the pcb for circuit with hole size from 0.8mm yo 1 mm for leads of Raw Material. Then we insert Raw Material according ton their pitches.
SODERING– Afgter mounting Raw Raw Material we solder the Raw Raw Material ane by one. We kept the temperature of iron at 250 degree to 400 degree. Because above this temperature it can damage to component. We used general iron available in the market of siron company. Its temperature was nearly 350 degree acc to company specifications. We used soldering wire of 22 gauge with flux inbuilt.
Assembly of Project:- after making electronic circuit we make mechanical portion. For this we take a base Board and after this our first step is that we make iron work that is welding, turning and etc. after this assembly of mechanical portion. After making mechanical portion we connect electronic circuit to make it automatic functions.
FINAL TESTING- After that we test the Project step by step . and insert the ICs after testing the one portion of the Project an then after other step by step. Its was tough work we tested voltage across the compents with erepect to ground. And current in series.
TROUBLSHOOTING– Then we tried to troubleshoot the errors in the project
A Carjack is a mechanical device that can increase the magnitude of an effort force.
The effort force for a Carjack when neglecting friction can be expressed as
F = Q p / 2 π R (1)
F = effort force at the end of the arm or handle (lb)
Q = weight or load (lb)
p = pitch distance or lead of thread in one turn (in)
r = pitch radius of Car(in)
R = lever-arm radius (in)
In this project we make a jack which will work automatically. In this project first of all we will make a Carjack with the help of bevel gears types some mechanism. Carjack is a very useful thing today but there are many heavy vehicle so working which a Carjack is very difficult to every person. So by keep this concept in our mind we have made a automatic Carjack which is controlled by motor. We use a DC motor because the direction of rotation is very easily of Dc motor which is required for Carjack is very must. For this we use a microcontoler circuit because we can set a timing according to vehicle with the help of microcontroller. To make automatic Carjack there are two methods. First is that take a Carjack fom market and jointed a pully on this scrw jack. At the other side use a motor and joint the motor with Carjack’s pully with the help of belt. But in our project we use self made Carjack also. Because we can make Carjack according to the power of motor.
Detail of Project
Detail of Material
Gear (Crown pinion):-
A gear is a component within a transmission device that transmits rotational force to another gear or device. A gear is different from a pulley in that a gear is a round wheel which has linkages (“teeth” or “cogs”) that mesh with other gear teeth, allowing force to be fully transferred without slippage. Depending on their construction and arrangement, geared devices can transmit forces at different speeds, torques, or in a different direction, from the power source. Gears are a very useful simple machine. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear, but a gear can mesh with any device having compatible teeth, such as linear moving racks. A gear’s most important feature is that gears of unequal sizes (diameters) can be combined to produce a mechanical advantage, so that the rotational speed and torque of the second gear are different from that of the first. In the context of a particular machine, the term “gear” also refers to one particular arrangement of gears among other arrangements (such as “first gear”). Such arrangements are often given as a ratio, using the number of teeth or gear diameter as units. The term “gear” is also used in non-geared devices which perform equivalent tasks:
“…broadly speaking, a gear refers to a ratio of engine shaft speed to driveshaft speed. Although CVTs change this ratio without using a set of planetary gears, they are still described as having low and high “gears” for the sake of
The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larger, either the gear, or the wheel.
The interlocking of the teeth in a pair of meshing gears means that their circumferences necessarily move at the same rate of linear motion (eg., metres per second, or feet per minute). Since rotational speed (eg. measured in revolutions per second, revolutions per minute, or radians per second) is proportional to a wheel’s circumferential speed divided by its radius, we see that the larger the radius of a gear, the slower will be its rotational speed, when meshed with a gear of given size and speed. The same conclusion can also be reached by a different analytical process: counting teeth. Since the teeth of two meshing gears are locked in a one to one correspondence, when all of the teeth of the smaller gear have passed the point where the gears meet — ie., when the smaller gear has made one revolution — not all of the teeth of the larger gear will have passed that point — the larger gear will have made less than one revolution. The smaller gear makes more revolutions in a given period of time; it turns faster. The speed ratio is simply the reciprocal ratio of the numbers of teeth on the two gears.
(Speed A * Number of teeth A) = (Speed B * Number of teeth B)
This ratio is known as the gear ratio.
The torque ratio can be determined by considering the force that a tooth of one gear exerts on a tooth of the other gear. Consider two teeth in contact at a point on the line joining the shaft axes of the two gears. In general, the force will have both a radial and a circumferential component. The radial component can be ignored: it merely causes a sideways push on the shaft and does not contribute to turning. The circumferential component causes turning. The torque is equal to the circumferential component of the force times radius. Thus we see that the larger gear experiences greater torque; the smaller gear less. The torque ratio is equal to the ratio of the radii. This is exactly the inverse of the case with the velocity ratio. Higher torque implies lower velocity and vice versa. The fact that the torque ratio is the inverse of the velocity ratio could also be inferred from the law of conservation of energy. Here we have been neglecting the effect of friction on the torque ratio. The velocity ratio is truly given by the tooth or size ratio, but friction will cause the torque ratio to be actually somewhat less than the inverse of the velocity ratio.
In the above discussion we have made mention of the gear “radius”. Since a gear is not a proper circle but a roughened circle, it does not have a radius. However, in a pair of meshing gears, each may be considered to have an effective radius, called the pitch radius, the pitch radii being such that smooth wheels of those radii would produce the same velocity ratio that the gears actually produce. The pitch radius can be considered sort of an “average” radius of the gear, somewhere between the outside radius of the gear and the radius at the base of the teeth.
The issue of pitch radius brings up the fact that the point on a gear tooth where it makes contact with a tooth on the mating gear varies during the time the pair of teeth are engaged; also the direction of force may vary. As a result, the velocity ratio (and torque ratio) is not, actually, in general, constant, if one considers the situation in detail, over the course of the period of engagement of a single pair of teeth. The velocity and torque ratios given at the beginning of this section are valid only “in bulk” — as long-term averages; the values at some particular position of the teeth may be different.
It is in fact possible to choose tooth shapes that will result in the velocity ratio also being absolutely constant — in the short term as well as the long term. In good quality gears this is usually done, since velocity ratio fluctuations cause undue vibration, and put additional stress on the teeth, which can cause tooth breakage under heavy loads at high speed. Constant velocity ratio may also be desirable for precision in instrumentation gearing, clocks and watches. The involute tooth shape is one that results in a constant velocity ratio, and is the most commonly used of such shapes today.
Comparison with other drive mechanisms
The definite velocity ratio which results from having teeth gives gears an advantage over other drives (such as traction drives and V-belts) in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower are in close proximity gears also have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required; the downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost.
Spur gears are the simplest, and probably most common, type of gear. Their general form is a cylinder or disk. The teeth project radially, and with these “straight-cut gears“, the leading edges of the teeth are aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can only mesh correctly if they are fitted to parallel axles.
Intermeshing gears in motion
Unlike most gears, an internal gear (shown here) does not cause direction reversal.
Helical gears from a Meccano construction set.
Helical gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth. This causes helical gears to run more smoothly and quietly than spur gears. Helical gears also offer the possibility of using non-parallel shafts. A pair of helical gears can be meshed in two ways: with shafts oriented at either the sum or the difference of the helix angles of the gears. These configurations are referred to as parallel or crossed, respectively. The parallel configuration is the more mechanically sound. In it, the helices of a pair of meshing teeth meet at a common tangent, and the contact between the tooth surfaces will, generally, be a curve extending some distance across their face widths. In the crossed configuration, the helices do not meet tangentially, and only point contact is achieved between tooth surfaces. Because of the small area of contact, crossed helical gears can only be used with light loads.
Quite commonly, helical gears come in pairs where the helix angle of one is the negative of the helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as having a right handed helix and a left handed helix of equal angles. If such a pair is meshed in the ‘parallel’ mode, the two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zero — that is, the shafts are parallel. If the pair is meshed in the ‘crossed’ mode, the angle between shafts will be twice the absolute value of either helix angle.