Bottling plant automation mechanical project reports synopsis

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the Btech. course.

Mechanical Bootling Plant Automation

Under the Guidance of

Submitted By

Abhishek Kaushik

SG-119836.

Submitted to:

Rimt Polytechnic

Mandi Gobindgarh

Introduction:

In this project we will make Automation project . In project we will complete two process in plant automation – one is filling of bottle and other is capping of bottles.

Feature in Project-

  • Conveyor System

  • bottle filling System

  • Bottle Capping system

Conveyor System:

In Conveyor system we will use a conveyor belt around roller. A motor will drive this conveyor.

In Bottle filling system- there will be a water pump to fill the botle automatically. When our bottle will reach at this station a Proximity sensor will sense bottle. We could use infrared or reed switch for this purpose.

Timer will get activated thats mean water pump will get activated for some time . During this period conveyor will stop .

Bottle capping System- in this system when sensor will sense bottle reach at this platform then conveyor will stop for some time. It will activate capping motor.

H bridge is interface with the microcontroller with the help of opto -coupler circuit. Opto-coupler circuit not only interface the micro-controller with the H bridge but also provide a electrical isolation between microcontroller and dc motor circuit.

Stepper motor

stepper motor have five wires . One for common supplies another four for winding purpose. By giving different signal to each we will control the stepper motor.

The wires from the Logic PCB connector to the stepper motor in a TM100 Disk Drive are as follows

This kind of motor has four coils which, when energised in the correct sequence, cause the permanent magnet attached to the shaft to rotate.

There are two basic step sequences. After step 4, the sequence is repeated from step 1 again.

Reversing the order of the steps in a sequence will reverse the direction of rotation.

a. Single-Coil Excitation – Each successive coil is energised in turn.

Step

Coil 4

Coil 3

Coil 2

Coil 1

a.1

on

off

off

off

a.2

off

on

off

off

a.3

off

off

on

off

a.4

off

off

off

on

This sequence produces the smoothest movement and consumes least power.

Single-Coil Excitation

Inside a Stepper Motor

The stepper motors we are concerned with are those taken out of old 5 ¼” floppy disk drives. Some of the comments below may therefore not apply in all cases…

A

B

C

D

The simplest way to think of a stepper motor is a bar magnet and four coils.

When current flows though coil “A” the magnet is attracted and moves one step to the right. Coil A is then turned off and coil “B” turned on. The magnet moves another step to the right. Coil “B” is then turned off and coil “C” turned on. The magnet moves another step to the right and so on…

A similar process occurs inside the stepper motor, but the ‘magnet’ is cylidrical and rotates inside the coils.

In order to make a stepper motor rotate you must turn on each coil in the correct sequence. The motor will continue to rotate as long as you continue the sequence. A typical code sequence would be:

count := 1
repeat

port[888] := 1;
delay(50);
port[888] := 2;
delay(50);
port[888] := 4;
delay(50);
port[888] := 8;
delay(50);
count := count + 1;

until count > 50;

NOTE1: The “delay” is needed provide enough time for the magnetic field inside the coils to build up and the magnet to move. Without the ‘delay’, the coils will switch on and off so fast that the magnet will not get a chance to be attracted and it will not move.

NOTE2: To reverse the direction, simply reverse the output order.

The Coil Switch-on Sequence

The stepper motor in a 5 ¼” floppy drive (the one that moves the head back and forth over the disk – NOT the one that spins the disk) has FIVE wires coming out of it. If you are lucky they will be coloured Brown, Yellow, Red, Blue and White. (Many of the ones I’ve looked at have five brown wires!)

The ‘four’ coils described above are actually arranged as two 150 ohm coils with centre taps. The centre taps are lines “1” and “2” in Figure 1.1. This line is generally called the “common”.

Figure 1.1


Measuring the resistance between each of the wires coming out of the motor produces the following readings:


Measured Resistance (ohms)


1


2


1a


1b


2a


2b


1



0


75


75


75


75


2


0



75


75


75


75


1a


75


75



150


150


150


1b


75


75


150



150


150


2a


75


75


150


150



150


2b


75


75


150


150


150


One of the five wires is the ‘common’. You can easily identify the common with a multimeter. It will be the one that reads 75 ohms between it and all the other four lines in turn. The other four are impossible to identify using a multimeter. You will need to use an interface and connect it to a computer for the next step. (You could just use wires from a 12 volt battery if you wanted.)

Using the Demonstration Interface to Drive a Stepper Motor
(For details about the Demonstration Interface see: robokit.html)

  • Connect a 12 volt DC supply to the demonstration interface (in place of the 9 volt battery).

  • Solder the ‘common’ lead to the positive line on the Demonstration Interface.

  • Solder each of the other four wires to the points where the resistor connects to a line from the ULN2803. (Keep the wires in order from the common wire and solder them to data lines 0, 1, 2, and 3.)

  • Connect the interface to a computer and send ‘out’ commands of 1,2,4 and 8. The motor should ‘step’ in a clockwise, or anti-clockwise direction. – If it ‘jerks’ as it tries to change direction, or simply ‘shudders’ you will need to experiment with other control sequences.

Hopefully your motor moved in a consistent direction. Now you need to write code as outlined above and try for complete rotations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Bottle Filling system

Capping system

Sensing System For Bottle

 

Conveyor Belt

Motor For Conveyor

 

 

Requirements:

  • Wood Sticks 50 feetx2 Inch

  • Nails ¾ inch with top

  • Fevicol

  • Conveyor Belt

  • Motors Servo – 15 RPM 6 nos.

  • Water Pump

  • Control Panel with timers – Readymade

  • Tapes

  • Cutter

  • ¾ imch Screws Steel

  • Screw Driver

  • Drill Machine

  • 3 Inch Steel Patti

Bibiliography:-

http://www.ecawa.asn.au/home/jfuller/steppers.html

www.ips123.in

www.google.com

www.yahoosearch.com

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