Introduction and Working:
Grass Cutting project is our major project. We will operate this machine using solar panel. We found tough to get idea from Internet because its tough to get combined material to make mechanical design.
There are two ways to cut grass – one radial and another is axial. Normally grass cutter machines are axial type. We will cut grass with radial method.
We will use HSS – High speed steel or CS- carbon steel for cutting grass.
We will use high torque PM -permanent magnet type motor for driving blades. Blade will be welded or we will use nut bolt assebly.
Which will help to charge battery. First of all solar panel will give AC output. So ac will be converted in to DC using bridge and filters. Out put of supply will ve given to battery charging circuit.
An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically the utility mains, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short—5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units—but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.
While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities
The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems:
Power failure: defined as a total loss of input voltage.
Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.
Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage.
Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion.
Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.
Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.
Harmonic distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal sinusoidal waveform expected on the line.
UPS units are divided into categories based on which of the above problems they address[dubious – discuss], and some manufacturers categorize their products in accordance with the number of power related problems they address.
In this project we will use Pic controller to controller to control the whole function.
We will use indicator for Low voltage , Current usage.
Battery Low indication.
Switching circuit for battery and power supply.
Power supply section
- For TTL circuits, the power supply pin is labeled Vcc and its nominal value.
- For CMOS ICs, the power supply pin is labeled as VDD & its nominal value range from T3 to 18V
- In power supply section, here we use a centre tap transformer. The transformer consist of two windings. The primary winding is connected to AC 220 v and the required ac voltage is obtained from secondary winding. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Here . maximum voltage range of transformer is 12-0-12V.
- Rectifier is used to convert the ac into pulsating dc, the rectifier employed is usually of half rectifier due to its easy operation. Thus, the output of rectifier is pulsating dc.
- Filter is used for filteration of the rectifier output. Filter is used to remove the ripples from the output of rectifier and to smooth it out. The dc output at the filter output is dependent upon the ac mains and applied load.Variation in any of two results in variation of the output.
- Usually, zener or a 78** or 79** series IC voltage regulator is employed that keeps the dc output voltage constant even if there is variation in ac main or the load.
|5||Transformer 12v 2A||1||10|
|Push to On Sw||3||12|
|19||IC 7805 Volt. Reg||2||15|
|20||TRANSFORMER 9 V||1||30|
|29||Copper Clad Board||1||100|
CRO 20 Mhz
ORCAD for PCB design 10.5
Proteus for simulation 7.4 version
- Low cost
- Flexible due to microcntroller
- Easy to use- system is very easy to understand
- Power mode and Battery mode indication
8051 microcontroller book ALI MAZIDI