Abrasive Wear Testing Machine

Project Report


Abrasive Wear Testing Machine

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Table of contents

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In this project we are using abrasive material for smoothing a job so that we could be able to check the abrasive wear of the particular material. We are using 1HP AC motor which is being used to drive the Grinder. We are using a funnel to pour the abrasive material on the job. A weight lifter is being used to adjust the Job near the grinder. In this attachment a weight lifter and a spring is attached in such arrangement so that we could be able to adjust the position of the Job.

Definition of Wear:

Wear is related to interactions between surfaces and specifically the removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface. In materials science, wear is erosion or sideways displacement of material from its “derivative” and original position on a solid surface performed by the action of another surface. Wear of metals occurs by the plastic displacement of surface and near-surface material and by the detachment of particles that form wear debris. The size of the generated particles may vary from millimeter range down to an ion range. This process may occur by contact with other metals, nonmetallic solids, flowing liquids, or solid particles or liquid droplets entrained in flowing gasses. Wear can also be defined as a process where interaction between two surfaces or bounding faces of solids within the working environment results in dimensional loss of one solid, with or without any actual decoupling and loss of material. Aspects of the working environment which affect wear include loads and features such as unidirectional sliding, reciprocating, rolling, and impact loads, speed, temperature, but also different types of counter-bodies such as solid, liquid or gas and type of contact ranging between single phase or multiphase, in which the last multiphase may combine liquid with solid particles and gas bubbles.

About Abrasive wear

Abrasive wear occurs when a hard rough surface slides across a softer surface. ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing and Materials) defines it as the loss of material due to hard particles or hard protuberances that are forced against and move along a solid surface.

Abrasive wear is commonly classified according to the type of contact and the contact environment. The type of contact determines the mode of abrasive wear. The two modes of abrasive wear are known as two-body and three-body abrasive wear. Two-body wear occurs when the grits or hard particles remove material from the opposite surface. The common analogy is that of material being removed or displaced by a cutting or plowing operation. Three-body wear occurs when the particles are not constrained, and are free to roll and slide down a surface. The contact environment determines whether the wear is classified as open or closed. An open contact environment occurs when the surfaces are sufficiently displaced to be independent of one another Deep ‘groove’ like surface indicates abrasive wear over cast iron (yellow arrow indicate sliding direction)

There are a number of factors which influence abrasive wear and hence the manner of material removal. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to describe the manner in which the material is removed.

Three commonly identified mechanisms of abrasive wear are:

  • Plowing
  • Cutting
  • Fragmentation

Plowing occurs when material is displaced to the side, away from the wear particles, resulting in the formation of grooves that do not involve direct material removal. The displaced material forms ridges adjacent to grooves, which may be removed by subsequent passage of abrasive particles. Cutting occurs when material is separated from the surface in the form of primary debris, or microchips, with little or no material displaced to the sides of the grooves. This mechanism closely resembles conventional machining. Fragmentation occurs when material is separated from a surface by a cutting process and the indenting abrasive causes localized fracture of the wear material. These cracks then freely propagate locally around the wear groove, resulting in additional material removal by spalling.

Block Diagram:

Material Required:

  • Metallic Stand
  • AC MOTOR (1 hp)
  • Grinder
  • Funnel
  • Spring
  • Weight lifter
  • JOB holder
  • Abrasive material
  • Job for grinding purpose

Mechanical Design:


When we give ac supply to the ac motor it starts the grinding machine to rotate at a particular speed which is desired for grinding purpose. The job which is supposed to be tested for abrasive wearing is clamped In the job holder. We can adjust the position by putting weight on the weight lifter mechanism attached with the Job holder. Abrasive material is coming down from the funnel on the Job. Hence the job is being grind in a smooth way.

Description About material being used:

AC Motor:

Poly phase cage rotor:

Most common AC motors use the squirrel-cage rotor, which will be found in virtually all domestic and light industrial alternating current motors. The squirrel-cage refers to the rotating exercise cage for pet animals. The motor takes its name from the shape of its rotor “windings”- a ring at either end of the rotor, with bars connecting the rings running the length of the rotor. It is typically cast aluminum or copper poured between the iron laminates of the rotor, and usually only the end rings will be visible. The vast majority of the rotor currents will flow through the bars rather than the higher-resistance and usually varnished laminates. Very low voltages at very high currents are typical in the bars and end rings; high efficiency motors will often use cast copper to reduce the resistance in the rotor.

In operation, the squirrel-cage motor may be viewed as a transformer with a rotating secondary. When the rotor is not rotating in sync with the magnetic field, large rotor currents are induced; the large rotor currents magnetize the rotor and interact with the stator’s magnetic fields to bring the rotor almost into synchronization with the stator’s field. An unloaded squirrel-cage motor at rated no-load speed will consume electrical power only to maintain rotor speed against friction and resistance losses. As the mechanical load increases, so will the electrical load – the electrical load is inherently related to the mechanical load. This is similar to a transformer, where the primary’s electrical load is related to the secondary’s electrical load.

This is why a squirrel-cage blower motor may cause household lights to dim upon starting, but does not dim the lights on startup when its fan belt (and therefore mechanical load) is removed. Furthermore, a stalled squirrel-cage motor (overloaded or with a jammed shaft) will consume current limited only by circuit resistance as it attempts to start. Unless something else limits the current (or cuts it off completely) overheating and destruction of the winding insulation is the likely outcome.

Virtually every washing machine, dishwasher, standalone fan, record player, etc. uses some variant of a squirrel-cage motor.

Poly phase wound rotor

An alternate design, called the wound rotor, is used when variable speed is required. In this case, the rotor has the same number of poles as the stator and the windings are made of wire, connected to slip rings on the shaft. Carbon brushes connect the slip rings to a controller such as a variable resistor that allows changing the motor’s slip rate. In certain high-power variable-speed wound rotor drives, the slip-frequency energy is captured, rectified, and returned to the power supply through an inverter. With bidirectionally controlled power, the wound rotor becomes an active participant in the energy conversion process, with the wound rotor doubly fed configuration showing twice the power density.

Compared to squirrel cage rotors, wound rotor motors are expensive and require maintenance of the slip rings and brushes, but they were the standard form for variable speed control before the advent of compact power electronic devices. Transistorized inverters with variable-frequency drive can now be used for speed control, and wound rotor motors are becoming less common.

Several methods of starting a polyphase motor are used. Where a large inrush current and high starting torque can be permitted, the motor can be started across the line, by applying full line voltage to the terminals (direct-on-line, DOL). Where it is necessary to limit the starting inrush current (where the motor is large compared with the short-circuit capacity of the supply), the motor is started at reduced voltage using either series inductors, an autotransformer, thyristors, or other devices. A technique sometimes used is star-delta (YΔ) starting, where the motor coils are initially connected in star configuration for acceleration of the load, then switched to delta configuration when the load is up to speed. This technique is more common in Europe than in North America. Transistorized drives can directly vary the applied voltage as required by the starting characteristics of the motor and load.

This type of motor is becoming more common in traction applications such as locomotives, where it is known as the asynchronous traction motor.

Two-phase servo motor

A typical two-phase AC servo-motor has a squirrel cage rotor and a field consisting of two windings:

a constant-voltage (AC) main winding.

a control-voltage (AC) winding in quadrature (i.e., 90 degrees phase shifted) with the main winding so as to produce a rotating magnetic field. Reversing phase makes the motor reverse.

An AC servo amplifier, a linear power amplifier, feeds the control winding. The electrical resistance of the rotor is made high intentionally so that the speed/torque curve is fairly linear. Two-phase servo motors are inherently high-speed, low-torque devices, heavily geared down to drive the load.

Single-phase induction motor

Single-phase motors do not have a unique rotating magnetic field like multi-phase motors. The field alternates (reverses polarity) between pole pairs and can be viewed as two fields rotating in opposite directions. They require a secondary magnetic field that causes the rotor to move in a specific direction. After starting, the alternating stator field is in relative rotation with the rotor. Several methods are commonly used:

Shaded-pole motor

A common single-phase motor is the shaded-pole motor and is used in devices requiring low starting torque, such as electric fans, small pumps, or small household appliances. In this motor, small single-turn copper “shading coils” create the moving magnetic field. Part of each pole is encircled by a copper coil or strap; the induced current in the strap opposes the change of flux through the coil. This causes a time lag in the flux passing through the shading coil, so that the maximum field intensity moves higher across the pole face on each cycle. This produces a low level rotating magnetic field which is large enough to turn both the rotor and its attached load. As the rotor picks up speed the torque builds up to its full level as the principal magnetic field is rotating relative to the rotating rotor.

A reversible shaded-pole motor was made by Barber-Colman several decades ago. It had a single field coil, and two principal poles, each split halfway to create two pairs of poles. Each of these four “half-poles” carried a coil, and the coils of diagonally opposite half-poles were connected to a pair of terminals. One terminal of each pair was common, so only three terminals were needed in all.

The motor would not start with the terminals open; connecting the common to one other made the motor run one way, and connecting common to the other made it run the other way. These motors were used in industrial and scientific devices.

An unusual, adjustable-speed, low-torque shaded-pole motor could be found in traffic-light and advertising-lighting controllers. The pole faces were parallel and relatively close to each other, with the disc centred between them, something like the disc in a watthour meter. Each pole face was split, and had a shading coil on one part; the shading coils were on the parts that faced each other. Both shading coils were probably closer to the main coil; they could have both been farther away, without affecting the operating principle, just the direction of rotation.

Applying AC to the coil created a field that progressed in the gap between the poles. The plane of the stator core was approximately tangential to an imaginary circle on the disc, so the travelling magnetic field dragged the disc and made it rotate.

The stator was mounted on a pivot so it could be positioned for the desired speed and then clamped in position. Keeping in mind that the effective speed of the travelling magnetic field in the gap was constant, placing the poles nearer to the centre of the disc made it run relatively faster, and toward the edge, slower.

It is possible that these motors are still in use in some older installations.

Split-phase motor

Another common single-phase AC motor is the split-phase induction motor,[19] commonly used in major appliances such as air conditioners and clothes dryers. Compared to the shaded pole motor, these motors provide much greater starting torque.

A split-phase motor has a secondary startup winding that is 90 electrical degrees to the main winding, always centered directly between the poles of the main winding, and connected to the main winding by a set of electrical contacts. The coils of this winding are wound with fewer turns of smaller wire than the main winding, so it has a lower inductance and higher resistance. The position of the winding creates a small phase shift between the flux of the main winding and the flux of the starting winding, causing the rotor to rotate. When the speed of the motor is sufficient to overcome the inertia of the load, the contacts are opened automatically by a centrifugal switch or electric relay. The direction of rotation is determined by the connection between the main winding and the start circuit. In applications where the motor requires a fixed rotation, one end of the start circuit is permanently connected to the main winding, with the contacts making the connection at the other end.

Capacitor start motor

Schematic of a capacitor start motor.

A capacitor start motor is a split-phase induction motor with a starting capacitor inserted in series with the startup winding, creating an LC circuit which produces a greater phase shift (and so, a much greater starting torque) than both split-phase and shaded pole motors.

Resistance start motor

A resistance start motor is a split-phase induction motor with a starter inserted in series with the startup winding, creating reactance. This added starter provides assistance in the starting and initial direction of rotation.

Permanent-split capacitor motor

Another variation is the permanent-split capacitor (or PSC) motor.[20] Also known as a capacitor-run motor, this type of motor uses a non-polarized capacitor with a high voltage rating to generate an electrical phase shift between the run and start windings. PSC motors are the dominant type of split-phase motor in Europe and much of the world, but in North America, they are most frequently used in variable torque applications (like blowers, fans, and pumps) and other cases where variable speeds are desired.

A capacitor with a relatively low capacitance, and relatively high voltage rating, is connected in series with the start winding and remains in the circuit during the entire run cycle.[20] Like other split-phase motors, the main winding is used with a smaller start winding, and rotation is changed by reversing the connection between the main winding and the start circuit. There are significant differences, however; the use of a speed sensitive centrifugal switch requires that other split-phase motors must operate at, or very close to, full speed. PSC motors may operate within a wide range of speeds, much lower than the motor’s electrical speed. Also, for applications like automatic door openers that require the motor to reverse rotation often, the use of a mechanism requires that a motor must slow to a near stop before contact with the start winding is re-established. The ‘permanent’ connection to the capacitor in a PSC motor means that changing rotation is instantaneous.

Three-phase motors can be converted to PSC motors by making common two windings and connecting the third via a capacitor to act as a start winding. However, the power rating needs to be at least 50% larger than for a comparable single-phase motor due to an unused winding.

Synchronous motor:

Three-phase systemR with rotating magnetic fields.

Poly phase synchronous motor

If connections to the rotor coils of a three-phase motor are taken out on slip-rings and fed a separate field current to create a continuous magnetic field (or if the rotor consists of a permanent magnet), the result is called a synchronous motor because the rotor will rotate synchronously with the rotating magnetic field produced by the poly phase electrical supply. Another synchronous motor system is the brush less wound-rotor doubly fed synchronous motor system with an independently excited rotor multiphase AC winding set that may experience slip-induction beyond synchronous speeds but like all synchronous motors, does not rely on slip-induction for torque production.

The synchronous motor can also be used as an alternator.

Nowadays, synchronous motors are frequently driven by transistorized variable-frequency drives. This greatly eases the problem of starting the massive rotor of a large synchronous motor. They may also be started as induction motors using a squirrel-cage winding that shares the common rotor: once the motor reaches synchronous speed, no current is induced in the squirrel-cage winding so it has little effect on the synchronous operation of the motor, aside from stabilizing the motor speed on load changes.

Synchronous motors are occasionally used as traction motors; the TGV may be the best-known example of such use.

Huge numbers of three phase synchronous motors are now fitted to electric cars. They have a Nd or other rare earth permanent magnet.

One use for this type of motor is its use in a power factor correction scheme. They are referred to as synchronous condensers. This exploits a feature of the machine where it consumes power at a leading power factor when its rotor is over excited. It thus appears to the supply to be a capacitor, and could thus be used to correct the lagging power factor that is usually presented to the electric supply by inductive loads. The excitation is adjusted until a near unity power factor is obtained (often automatically). Machines used for this purpose are easily identified as they have no shaft extensions. Synchronous motors are valued in any case because their power factor is much better than that of induction motors, making them preferred for very high power applications.

Some of the largest AC motors are pumped-storage hydroelectricity generators that are operated as synchronous motors to pump water to a reservoir at a higher elevation for later use to generate electricity using the same machinery. Six 500-megawatt generators are installed in the Bath County Pumped Storage Station in Virginia, USA. When pumping, each unit can produce 642,800 horsepower (479.3 megawatts).

Single-phase synchronous motor

Small single-phase AC motors can also be designed with magnetized rotors (or several variations on that idea; see “Hysteresis synchronous motors” below).

If a conventional squirrel-cage rotor has flats ground on it to create salient poles and increase reluctance, it will start conventionally, but will run synchronously, although it can provide only a modest torque at synchronous speed. This is known as a reluctance motor.

Because inertia makes it difficult to instantly accelerate the rotor from stopped to synchronous speed, these motors normally require some sort of special feature to get started. Some include a squirrel-cage structure to bring the rotor close to synchronous speed. Various other designs use a small induction motor (which may share the same field coils and rotor as the synchronous motor) or a very light rotor with a one-way mechanism (to ensure that the rotor starts in the “forward” direction). In the latter instance, applying AC power creates chaotic (or seemingly chaotic) jumping movement back and forth; such a motor will always start, but lacking the anti-reversal mechanism, the direction it runs is unpredictable. The Hammond organ tone generator used a non-self-starting synchronous motor (until comparatively recently), and had an auxiliary conventional shaded-pole starting motor. A spring-loaded auxiliary manual starting switch connected power to this second motor for a few seconds.

Hysteresis synchronous motor

These motors are relatively costly, and are used where exact speed (assuming an exact-frequency AC source) as well as rotation with a very small amount of fast variations in speed (called ‘flutter” in audio recordings) is essential. Applications included tape recorder capstan drives (the motor shaft could be the capstan), and, before the advent of crystal control, motion picture cameras and recorders. Their distinguishing feature is their rotor, which is a smooth cylinder of a magnetic alloy that stays magnetized, but can be demagnetized fairly easily as well as re-magnetized with poles in a new location. Hysteresis refers to how the magnetic flux in the metal lags behind the external magnetizing force; for instance, to demagnetize such a material, one could apply a magnetizing field of opposite polarity to that which originally magnetized the material. These motors have a stator like those of capacitor-run squirrel-cage induction motors. On startup, when slip decreases sufficiently, the rotor becomes magnetized by the stators field, and the poles stay in place. The motor then runs at synchronous speed as if the rotor were a permanent magnet. When stopped and restarted, the poles are likely to form at different locations. For a given design, torque at synchronous speed is only relatively modest, and the motor can run at below synchronous speed. In simple words, it is lagging magnetic field behind magnetic flux


Other AC motor types

Universal motor and series wound motor

Universal motor

A universal motor is a design that can operate on either AC or DC power. In universal motors the stator and rotor of a brushed DC motor are both wound and supplied from an external source, with the torque being a function of the rotor current times the stator current so reversing the current in both rotor and stator does not reverse the rotation. Universal motors can run on AC as well as DC provided the frequency is not so high that the inductive reactance of the stator winding and/or eddy current losses become problems. Nearly all universal motors are series-wound because their stators have relatively few turns, minimizing inductance. Universal motors are compact, have high starting torque and can be varied in speed over a wide range with relatively simple controls such as rheostats and PWM choppers. Compared with induction motors, universal motors do have some drawbacks inherent to their brushes and commutators: relatively high levels of electrical and acoustic noise, low reliability and more frequent required maintenance.

Universal motors are widely used in small home appliances and hand power tools. Until the 1970s they dominated electric traction (electric, including diesel-electric railway and road vehicles); many traction power networks still use special low frequencies such as 16.7 and 25 Hz to overcome the aforementioned problems with losses and reactance. Still widely used, universal traction motors have been increasingly displaced by polyphase AC induction and permanent magnet motors with variable-frequency drives made possible by modern power semiconductor devices.

Repulsion motor

Repulsion motors are wound-rotor single-phase AC motors that are a type of induction motor. In a repulsion motor, the armature brushes are shorted together rather than connected in series with the field, as is done with universal motors. By transformer action, the stator induces currents in the rotor, which create torque by repulsion instead of attraction as in other motors. Several types of repulsion motors have been manufactured, but the repulsion-start induction-run (RS-IR) motor has been used most frequently. The RS-IR motor has a centrifugal switch that shorts all segments of the commutator so that the motor operates as an induction motor once it is close to full speed. Some of these motors also lift the brushes out of contact with source voltage regulation. Repulsion motors were developed before suitable motor starting capacitors were available, and few repulsion motors are sold as of 2005.

Exterior rotor

Where speed stability is important, some AC motors (such as some Papst motors) have the stator on the inside and the rotor on the outside to optimize inertia and cooling.

Sliding rotor motor.

AC Motor with sliding rotors

A conical rotor brake motor incorporates the brake as an integral part of the conical sliding rotor. When the motor is at rest, a spring acts on the sliding rotor and forces the brake ring against the brake cap in the motor, holding the rotor stationary. When the motor is energized, its magnetic field generates both an axial and a radial component. The axial component overcomes the spring force, releasing the brake; while the radial component causes the rotor to turn. There is no additional brake control required.

The high starting torque and low inertia of the conical rotor brake motor has proven to be ideal for the demands of high cycle dynamic drives in applications since the motor was invented, designed and introduced over 50 years ago. This type of motor configuration was first introduced in the USA in 1963.

Single-speed or two speed motors are designed for coupling to gear motor system gearboxes. Conical rotor brake motors are also used to power micro speed drives.

Motors of this type can also be found on overhead cranes and hoists. The micro speed unit combines two motors and an intermediate gear reducer. These are used for applications where extreme mechanical positioning accuracy and high cycling capability are needed. The micro speed unit combines a “main” conical rotor brake motor for rapid speed and a “micro” conical rotor brake motor for slow or positioning speed. The intermediate gearbox allows a range of ratios, and motors of different speeds can be combined to produce high ratios between high and low speed.

Electronically com mutated motor

 Brush less DC electric motor

Electronically com mutated (EC) motors are electric motors powered by direct-current (DC) electricity and having electronic commutation systems, rather than mechanical commutators and brushes. The current-to-torque and frequency-to-speed relationships of BLDC motors are linear. While the motor coils are powered by DC, power may be rectified from AC within the casing.

Watt hour-meter motor

These are two-phase induction motors with permanent magnets to retard the rotor so its speed is accurately proportional to the power passing through the meter. The rotor is an aluminium-alloy disc, and currents induced into it react with the field from the stator.

A split-phase watt hour meter has a stator with three coils facing the disc. The magnetic circuit is completed by a C-shaped core of permeable iron. The “voltage” coil above the disc is in parallel with the supply; its many turns have a high inductance/resistance ratio (Q) so its current and magnetic field are the time integral of the applied voltage, lagging it by 90 degrees. This magnetic field passes down perpendicularly through the disc, inducing circular eddy currents in the plane of the disc centered on the field. These induced currents are proportional to the time derivative of the magnetic field, leading it by 90 degrees. This puts the eddy currents in phase with the voltage applied to the voltage coil, just as the current induced in the secondary of a transformer with a resistive load is in phase with the voltage applied to its primary.

The eddy currents pass directly above the pole pieces of two “current” coils under the disc, each wound with a few turns of heavy-gauge wire whose inductive reactance is small compared to the load impedance. These coils connect the supply to the load, producing a magnetic field in phase with the load current. This field passes from the pole of one current coil up perpendicularly through the disc and back down through the disc to the pole of the other current coil, with a completed magnetic circuit back to the first current coil. As these fields cross the disc, they pass through the eddy currents induced in it by the voltage coil producing a Lorentz force on the disc mutually perpendicular to both. Assuming power is flowing to the load, the flux from the left current coil crosses the disc upwards where the eddy current flows radially toward the center of the disc producing (by the right hand rule) a torque driving the front of the disc to the right. Similarly, the flux crosses down through the disc to the right current coil where the eddy current flows radially away from the disc center, again producing a torque driving the front of the disc to the right. When the AC polarity reverses, the eddy currents in the disc and the direction of the magnetic flux from the current coils both change, leaving the direction of the torque unchanged.

The torque is thus proportional to the instantaneous line voltage times the instantaneous load current, automatically correcting for power factor. The disc is braked by a permanent magnet so that speed is proportional to torque and the disc mechanically integrates real power. The mechanical dial on the meter reads disc rotations and the total net energy delivered to the load. (If the load supplies power to the grid, the disc rotates backwards unless prevented by a ratchet, thus making net metering possible.)

In a split-phase watt hour meter the voltage coil is connected between the two “hot” (line) terminals (240V in North America[citation needed]) and two separate current coils are connected between the corresponding line and load terminals. No connection to the system neutral is needed to correctly handle combined line-to-neutral and line-to-line loads. Line-to-line loads draw the same current through both current coils and spin the meter twice as fast as a line-to-neutral load drawing the same current through only a single current coil, correctly registering the power drawn by the line-to-line load as twice that of the line-to-neutral load.

Other variations of the same design are used for polyphase (e.g., three-phase) power.

Slow-speed synchronous timing motor

Representative are low-torque synchronous motors with a multi-pole hollow cylindrical magnet (internal poles) surrounding the stator structure. An aluminum cup supports the magnet. The stator has one coil, coaxial with the shaft. At each end of the coil are a pair of circular plates with rectangular teeth on their edges, formed so they are parallel with the shaft. They are the stator poles. One of the pair of discs distributes the coil’s flux directly, while the other receives flux that has passed through a common shading coil. The poles are rather narrow, and between the poles leading from one end of the coil are an identical set leading from the other end. In all, this creates a repeating sequence of four poles, unshaded alternating with shaded, that creates a circumferential traveling field to which the rotor’s magnetic poles rapidly synchronize. Some stepping motors have a similar structure.

Grinding Machine:

A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel’s surface cuts a small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation.

Grinding is used to finish workpieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in dimensions in grinding is of the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a diverse field.

The grinding machine consists of a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work piece, and a power-driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed. The speed is determined by the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating. The grinding head can travel across a fixed work piece, or the work piece can be moved while the grind head stays in a fixed position. Fine control of the grinding head or table position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel, or using the features of numerical controls.

Grinding machines remove material from the work piece by abrasion, which can generate substantial amounts of heat. To cool the work piece so that it does not overheat and go outside its tolerance, grinding machines incorporate a coolant. The coolant also benefits the machinist as the heat generated may cause burns. In high-precision grinding machines (most cylindrical and surface grinders), the final grinding stages are usually set up so that they remove about 200 nm (less than 1/10000 in) per pass – this generates so little heat that even with no coolant, the temperature rise is negligible.


  • A surface grinder.
  • A cylindrical grinder.

Belt grinder, which is usually used as a machining method to process metals and other materials, with the aid of coated abrasives. Analogous to a belt sander (which itself is often used for wood but sometimes metal). Belt grinding is a versatile process suitable for all kind of applications, including finishing, deburring, and stock removal.

Bench grinder, which usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench or floor stand. Its uses include shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or repaired. Bench grinders are manually operated.

Cylindrical grinder, which includes both the types that use centers and the centerless types. A cylindrical grinder may have multiple grinding wheels. The workpiece is rotated and fed past the wheel(s) to form a cylinder. It is used to make precision rods, tubes, bearing races, bushings, and many other parts.

Surface grinder, which has a head that is lowered to a workpiece, which is moved back and forth under the grinding wheel on a table that typically has a controllable permanent magnet (magnetic chuck) for use with magnetic stock (especially ferrous stock) but can have a vacuum chuck or other fixture means. The most common surface grinders have a grinding wheel rotating on a horizontal axis cutting around the circumference of the grinding wheel. Rotary surface grinders, commonly known as “Blanchard” style grinders, have a grinding head which rotates the grinding wheel on a vertical axis cutting on the end face of the grinding wheel, while a table rotates the workpiece in the opposite direction underneath. This type of machine removes large amounts of material and grinds flat surfaces with noted spiral grind marks. It can also be used to make and sharpen metal stamping die sets, flat shear blades, fixture bases or any flat and parallel surfaces. Surface grinders can be manually operated or have CNC controls.

Tool and cutter grinder, which usually can perform the minor function of the drill bit grinder, or other specialist tool room grinding operations.

Jig grinder, which as the name implies, has a variety of uses when finishing jigs, dies, and fixtures. Its primary function is in the realm of grinding holes for drill bushings and grinding pins. It can also be used for complex surface grinding to finish work started on a mill.

Gear grinder, which is usually employed as the final machining process when manufacturing a high-precision gear. The primary function of these machines is to remove the remaining few thousandths of an inch of material left by other manufacturing methods (such as gashing or hobbing).

Die grinder, which is a high-speed hand-held rotary tool with a small diameter grinding bit. They are typically air driven (using compressed air), but can be driven with a small electric motor directly or via a flexible shaft.

Angle grinder, another hand held power tool, often used in fabrication and construction work.


A funnel is a pipe with a wide (often conical) mouth and a narrow stem. It is used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. Without a funnel, spillage may occur.

Funnels are usually made of stainless steel, aluminum, glass, or plastic. The material used in its construction should be sturdy enough to withstand the weight of the substance being transferred, and it should not react with the substance. For this reason, stainless steel or glass are useful in transferring diesel, while plastic funnels are useful in the kitchen. Sometimes disposable paper funnels are used in cases where it would be difficult to adequately clean the funnel afterward (for example, in adding motor oil to a car). Dropper funnels, also called dropping funnels or tap funnels, have a tap to allow the controlled release of a liquid. A flat funnel,[1] made of polypropylene, utilizes living hinges and flexible walls to fold flat.

The term “funnel” may refer to the chimney or smokestack on a steam locomotive and commonly refers to the same on a ship. The term funnel is also applied to other seemingly strange objects like a smoking pipe or a kitchen bin


A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually made out of spring steel. There are a large number of spring designs; in everyday usage the term often refers to coil springs.

When a spring is compressed or stretched from its resting position, it exerts an opposing force approximately proportional to its change in length (this approximation breaks down for larger deflections). The rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring. That is, it is the gradient of the force versus deflection curve. An extension or compression spring’s rate is expressed in units of force divided by distance, for example lbf/in or N/m. A torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting; when it is twisted about its axis by an angle, it produces a torque proportional to the angle. A torsion spring’s rate is in units of torque divided by angle, such as N·m/rad or ft·lbf/degree. The inverse of spring rate is compliance, that is: if a spring has a rate of 10 N/mm, it has a compliance of 0.1 mm/N. The stiffness (or rate) of springs in parallel is additive, as is the compliance of springs in series. Springs are made from a variety of elastic materials, the most common being spring steel. Small springs can be wound from per-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel and hardened after fabrication. Some non-ferrous metals are also used including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring corrosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs carrying electrical current

Abrasive material:

An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth, reflective surface, the process can also involve roughening as in satin, matte or beaded finishes. In short, the Ceramics which are used to cut, grind and polish other softer materials are known as Abrasives.

Abrasives are extremely commonplace and are used very extensively in a wide variety of industrial, domestic, and technological applications. This gives rise to a large variation in the physical and chemical composition of abrasives as well as the shape of the abrasive. Common uses for abrasives include grinding, polishing, buffing, honing, cutting, drilling, sharpening, lapping, and sanding (see abrasive machining). (For simplicity, “mineral” in this article will be used loosely to refer to both minerals and mineral-like substances whether man-made or not.)

Files are not abrasives; they remove material not by scratching or rubbing, but by the cutting action of sharp teeth which have been cut into the surface of the file, very much like those of a saw. However, diamond files are a form of coated abrasive (as they are metal rods coated with diamond powder).


It can be used for testing the abrasive wear of the material.

It can be used for grinding and smoothing purpose.


Low cost

portable device

Easy maintenance

User friendly


After all the testing we are successful in taking out the expected results of the project. It is working fine and in a smooth way. We can do modifications in the future so that we could be able to find out the wear resistance and the hardness of the material as well.

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